Planes 2 PDF

A hand plane is a tool for shaping wood using muscle power to force the cutting blade over the wood surface. When powered by electricity to the breadth of a board or panel, the tool may be called a thickness planer or planer which are designed to shape, flatten, and finish larger boards or surfaces. Generally all planes are used to flatten, reduce planes 2 PDF thickness of, and impart a smooth surface to a rough piece of lumber or timber. Planing is also used to produce horizontal, vertical, or inclined flat surfaces on workpieces usually too large for shaping, where the integrity of the whole requires the same smooth surface.

Lorsque le célèbre, Dusty Crophopper, découvre que son moteur est endommagé, il décide d’abandonner le monde de la course et de rejoindre celui des combattants du feu. Finalement sauver des vies, c’est ça être un vrai héros !

Hand planes are generally the combination of a cutting edge, such as a sharpened metal plate, attached to a firm body, that when moved over a wood surface, take up relatively uniform shavings, by nature of the body riding on the ‘high spots’ in the wood, and also by providing a relatively constant angle to the cutting edge, render the planed surface very smooth. A cutter which extends below the bottom surface, or sole, of the plane slices off shavings of wood. Though most planes are pushed across a piece of wood, holding it with one or both hands, Japanese planes are pulled toward the body, not pushed away. Hand planes are ancient, originating thousands of years ago. Early planes were made from wood with a rectangular slot or mortise cut across the center of the body.

The cutting blade or iron was held in place with a wooden wedge. The wedge was tapped into the mortise and adjusted with a small mallet, a piece of scrap wood or with the heel of the user’s hand. In 1918 an air-powered handheld planing tool was developed to reduce shipbuilding labor during World War I. The air-driven cutter spun at 8000 to 15000 rpm and allowed one man to do the planing work of up to fifteen men who used manual tools. Modern hand planes are made from wood, ductile iron or bronze which produces a tool that is heavier and will not rust. A: The mouth is an opening in the sole of the plane through which the blade extends, and through which wood shavings rise.

B: The iron is a steel blade which cuts the wood. C: The lever cap secures the cap iron and iron firmly to the frog. D: The depth adjustment knob controls the cutting depth of the iron. E: The knob allows a second hand to guide the plane. F: The cap iron or chipbreaker reinforces the iron and curls and breaks apart wood shavings as they pass through the mouth. G: The lateral adjustment lever skews the iron so that the depth of cut is uniform across the mouth. H: The tote is the principal handle for gripping the plane.

I: Is cam lever which pivots a sliding section of the forward end of the sole to adjust the gap in the plane’s mouth. It is anchored to the threaded post of the knob and secured by tightening the knob. J: The frog is an adjustable iron wedge that holds the plane iron at the proper angle and allows it to be varied in depth relative to the sole. The frog is screwed down to the inside of the sole through two parallel slots and on many planes is only adjustable with a screwdriver when the plane iron is removed. The sole is the bottom face of the plane.

Bench planes » are characterized by having their cutting bevel facing down and attached to a chipbreaker. Most metal bench planes, and some larger wooden ones, are designed with a rear handle known as a tote. Block planes » are characterized by the absence of a chipbreaker and the cutting iron bedded with the bevel up. The block plane is a smaller tool that can be held with one hand which excels at working against the grain on a cut end of a board. Different types of bench planes are designed to perform different tasks, with the name and size of the plane being defined by the use. Bailey iron bench planes were designated by number respective to the length of the plane.

This has carried over through the type, regardless of manufacturer. 1 plane is but little more than five inches long. 4, jack planes at about fourteen inches are No. Japanese plane designed to take a smaller shaving than a Western smoothing plane to create an extremely smooth surface. Polishing planes are the same length as western smoothing planes, and unlike Western planes, which are pushed across a board, is pulled with both hands towards the user. A wooden plane is entirely wood except for the blade. The iron is held into the plane with a wooden wedge, and is adjusted by striking the plane with a hammer.