Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding introduction to English Literature PDF key details in a text. Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral. Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.
Cet ouvrage, entièrement rédigé en anglais, s’adresse aux étudiants et aux amateurs de littérature. Les grands textes anglais y sont replacés dans leur contexte historique, social et culturel. Cette édition, remise à jour et modernisée, propose des fiches sur les termes critiques les plus courants, des chronologies, un index et une filmographie.
Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action. Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud. Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity:CCSS. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories and poetry, in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. Please click here for the ADA Compliant version of the English Language Arts Standards. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Old English literature or Anglo-Saxon literature, encompasses literature written in Old English, in Anglo-Saxon England from the 7th century to the decades after the Norman Conquest of 1066. The poem Beowulf, which often begins the traditional canon of English literature, is the most famous work of Old English literature. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle has also proven significant for historical study, preserving a chronology of early English history. Besides Old English literature, Anglo-Saxons wrote a number of Anglo-Latin works. 19th and early 20th centuries the focus was on the Germanic and pagan roots that scholars thought they could detect in Old English literature. Later, on account of the work of Bernard F.
Manuscripts written in both Latin and the vernacular remain. There were considerable losses of manuscripts as a result of the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the 16th century. Old English manuscripts have been highly prized by collectors since the 16th century, both for their historic value and for their aesthetic beauty with their uniformly spaced letters and decorative elements. The Junius manuscript, also known as the Cædmon manuscript, is an illustrated collection of poems on biblical narratives. The Exeter Book is an anthology, located in the Exeter Cathedral since it was donated there in the 11th century. Nowell Codex, contains prose and poetry, typically dealing with monstrous themes, including Beowulf.
These include corrections, alterations and expansions of the main text, as well as commentary upon it, and even unrelated texts. Old English poetry falls broadly into two styles or fields of reference, the heroic Germanic and the Christian. Almost all Old English poets are anonymous. Although there are Anglo-Saxon discourses on Latin prosody, the rules of Old English verse are understood only through modern analysis of the extant texts. Even though all extant Old English poetry is written and literate, it is assumed that Old English poetry was an oral craft that was performed by a scop and accompanied by a harp.
Cædmon is considered the first Old English poet whose work still survives. According to the account in Bede’s Historia ecclesiastica, he was first a herdsman before living as a monk at the abbey of Whitby in Northumbria in the 7th century. Father of glory, started every wonder. The holy Maker, for the sons of men. Cynewulf has proven to be a difficult figure to identify, but recent research suggests he was an Anglian poet from the early part of the 9th century. Bede is often thought to be the poet of a five-line poem entitled Bede’s Death Song, on account of its appearance in a letter on his death by Cuthbert. This poem exists in a Northumbrian and later version.
Alfred is said to be the author of some of the metrical prefaces to the Old English translations of Gregory’s Pastoral Care and Boethius’s Consolation of Philosophy. Alfred is also thought to be the author of 50 metrical psalms, but whether the poems were written by him, under his direction or patronage, or as a general part in his reform efforts is unknown. In addition to verbal formulas, many themes have been shown to appear among the various works of Anglo-Saxon literature. The Completion or Initiation of a Journey. Crowne drew on examples of the theme’s appearance in twelve Anglo-Saxon texts, including one occurrence in Beowulf. It was also observed in other works of Germanic origin, Middle English poetry, and even an Icelandic prose saga.
Remounted page from Beowulf, British Library Cotton Vitellius A. First page of Beowulf, contained in the damaged Nowell Codex. The Old English poetry which has received the most attention deals with the Germanic heroic past. The longest at 3,182 lines, and the most important, is Beowulf, which appears in the damaged Nowell Codex. Other heroic poems besides Beowulf exist. Two have survived in fragments: The Fight at Finnsburh, controversially interpreted by many to be a retelling of one of the battle scenes in Beowulf, and Waldere, a version of the events of the life of Walter of Aquitaine. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle contains various heroic poems inserted throughout.
The earliest from 937 is called The Battle of Brunanburh, which celebrates the victory of King Athelstan over the Scots and Norse. The 325 line poem The Battle of Maldon celebrates Earl Byrhtnoth and his men who fell in battle against the Vikings in 991. It is considered one of the finest, but both the beginning and end are missing and the only manuscript was destroyed in a fire in 1731. Old English heroic poetry was handed down orally from generation to generation.